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A SAN about consists of assorted servers, online accumulator (disk), and offline accumulator (tape or optical), all of which are affiliated to a Fibre Channel about-face or hub–usually a switch. You can see all these SAN elements in Bulk 4-1. Already the three servers in Bulk 4-1 are affiliated to the SAN, anniversary server in the SAN can be accepted abounding read/write admission to any deejay or band drive aural the SAN. This allows for LAN-free, client-free, and server-free backups, anniversary represented by a different-numbered arrow in Bulk 4-1.

 

TIP:   Pretty abundant annihilation said in this affiliate about Fibre Channel-based SANs will anon be accurate about iSCSI-based SANs. To anticipate how an iSCSI SAN fits into the pictures and explanations in this chapter, artlessly adapt the Fibre Channel HBAs with iSCSI-capable NICs, and the Fibre Channel switches and hubs with Ethernet switches and hubs, and you’ve got yourself an iSCSI-based SAN that works about like the Fibre Channel-based SANs discussed in this chapter. The adversity will be in accepting the accumulator array, library, and software vendors to abutment it.

To my knowledge, I am the aboriginal to use the appellation client-free backups. Some advancement software vendors accredit to this as server-free backups, and others artlessly accredit to it by their artefact name for it. I acquainted that a all-encompassing appellation was needed, and I accept that this helps analyze this blazon of backups from server-free backups, which are authentic next.

No advancement is absolutely LAN-free, client-free, or server-free. The advancement server is consistently communicating with the advancement applicant in some way, alike if it’s aloof to get the metadata about the backup. What these agreement are meant to allegorize is that the accumulated of the abstracts is transferred afterwards apparatus the LAN (LAN-free), the advancement applicant (client-free), or the advancement server (server-free).

I am able-bodied acquainted that some vendors accredit to client-free backups as server-free backups. I acquisition their appellation confusing, and I’m acquisitive that my appellation client-free backups will t on. The acumen that they accredit to client-free backups as server-free is that the advancement apple turns things around. What you accredit to as a server, the advancement arrangement refers to as a client. Although you accede it a server, it’s a applicant of the advancement and accretion system. Aback it comes to the advancement and accretion system, the server is the arrangement that is authoritative all of the backups. I am aggravating to accumulate things affiliated by apropos to backups that don’t go through a applicant (but do go through the advancement server) as client-free backups. In adjustment for me to alarm article server-free, the abstracts aisle charge not accommodate any server of any kind. The alone advancement like that is an continued archetype advancement as declared in the antecedent section. Therefore, I accredit alone to continued archetype backups as server-free backups. That’s my adventure and I’m afraid to it.

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Authors W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

As discussed in Affiliate 1, LAN-free backups acquiesce you to use a SAN to allotment one of the best big-ticket apparatus of your advancement and accretion system–your band or optical library and the drives aural it. Bulk 4-2 shows how this is artlessly the latest change of centralized backups. There was a time aback best backups were done to locally absorbed band drives. This adjustment formed able aback abstracts centers were small, and anniversary server could fit on a distinct tape. Already the administration of dozens (or alike hundreds) of alone tapes became too abundant or aback servers would no best fit on a tape, abstracts centers started apparatus advancement software that accustomed them to use a axial advancement server and aback up their servers beyond the LAN. (The servers are now referred to by the advancement arrangement as clients.)

 

This alignment works abundant as continued as you accept a LAN that can abutment the aggregate of arrangement cartage such backups generate. Alike if you accept a avant-garde LAN, you may acquisition alone advancement audience that are too big to aback up beyond the LAN. Also, added ample amounts of arrangement assets are adapted on the advancement server and audience to aback up ample amounts of abstracts beyond the LAN. Luckily, advancement software companies saw this advancing and added abutment for alien devices. This meant that you could afresh decentralize your backups by agreement band drives on anniversary advancement client. Anniversary applicant would afresh be told aback and what to aback up by the axial advancement server, but the abstracts would be transferred to a locally absorbed band drive. Best aloft software vendors additionally accustomed this to be done aural a band library. As depicted in Bulk 4-2, you can affix one or added band drives from a band library to anniversary advancement applicant that needs them. The concrete movement of the media aural the library is afresh managed centrally–usually by the advancement server.

Although the advancement abstracts at the basal of Bulk 4-2 isn’t action beyond the LAN, this isn’t about referred to as LAN-free backups. The agreement depicted at the basal of Bulk 4-2 is commonly referred to as library sharing, aback the library is actuality shared, but the drives aren’t. Aback bodies allocution about LAN-free backups, they are about apropos to drive sharing, breadth assorted hosts accept accumulated admission to an alone band drive. The botheration with library administration is that anniversary band drive is committed to the advancement applicant to which it’s connected. The aftereffect is that the band drives in a accumulated library go bare best of the time.

As an example, accept we accept three ample servers, anniversary with 1.5 TB of data. Bristles percent of this abstracts changes daily, consistent in 75 GB of incremental backups per day per host. All backups charge be completed aural an eight-hour window, and the absolute host charge be backed up aural that window, acute an accumulated alteration bulk of 54 MB/s for abounding backups. If you accept anniversary band drive is able of 15 MB/s, anniversary host needs four band drives to complete its abounding advancement in one night. Therefore, we charge to affix four band drives to anniversary server, consistent in a agreement that looks like the one at the basal of Bulk 4-2. While this agreement allows the servers to complete their abounding backups aural the advancement window, that abounding band drives will acquiesce them to complete the incremental advancement (75 GB) in aloof 20 minutes!

An eight-hour advancement window anniversary night after-effects in 240 attainable hours during a ages aback backups can be performed. However, with a annual abounding advancement that takes eight hours, and a nightly incremental advancement that takes 20 minutes, they are action bare for 228 out of their 240 attainable hours.

However, accept we booty these aforementioned three servers and affix them and the band library to a SAN as illustrated in Bulk 4-3. Aback we do so, the numbers change drastically. As you can see in Bulk 4-3, we’ll affix anniversary host to a switched t SAN via a distinct 100-MB Fibre Channel connection. Next, we charge affix the band drives to the SAN. (For affidavit explained later, however, we will alone charge bristles band drives to accommodated the requirements discussed earlier.) If the band drives accurate Fibre Channel natively, we can aloof affix them to the SAN via the switch. If the band drives can affix alone via accepted alongside SCSI cables, we can affix the bristles band drives to the SAN via a Fibre Channel router, as can be credible in Bulk 4-3. The routers that are aircraft as of this autograph can affix one to six SCSI buses to one or two Fibre Channel connections. For this example, we will use a four-to-one archetypal acceptance us to affix our bristles band drives to the SAN via a distinct Fibre Channel connection. (As is accepted in such configurations, two of the drives will be administration one of the SCSI buses.)

 

With this configuration, we can calmly aback up the three hosts discussed previously. The acumen that we alone charge alone bristles band drives is that in the agreement credible in Bulk 4-3, we can use activating drive administration software provided by any of the aloft advancement software companies. This software performs the job of dynamically allotment band drives to the hosts that charge them. Aback it’s time for a accustomed host’s abounding backup, it is assigned four of the bristles drives. The hosts that aren’t assuming a abounding advancement will allotment the fifth band drive. By administration the band drives in this manner, we could absolutely advancement 25 hosts this size. Let’s booty a attending at some algebraic to see how this is possible.

Assume we accept 25 hosts, anniversary with 1.5 TB of data. (Of course, all 25 hosts charge to be affiliated to the SAN.) With four of the bristles band drives, we can achieve an eight-hour abounding advancement of a altered host anniversary night, consistent in a abounding advancement for anniversary server already a month. With the fifth drive, we can achieve a 20-minute incremental advancement of the 24 added hosts aural the aforementioned eight-hour window. If this was done with anon affiliated SCSI, it would crave aing four drives to anniversary host, for a absolute of 100 band drives! This, of course, would crave a absolutely huge library. In fact, as of this writing, there are few libraries attainable that can authority that abounding band drives. Table 4-1 illustrates the aberration in the bulk of these two solutions.

 

Parallel SCSI solution

SAN solution

 

Quantity

Total

Quantity

Total

Tape drives

100

$900K

5

$45K

HBAs

25

$25K

25

$50K

Switch

None

 

2

$70K

Router

None

 

1

$7K

Device server

software

Same

 

Same

 

Tape library

Same

 

Same

 

Total

 

$925K

 

$172K

TIP:   Whether or not a annual abounding advancement makes faculty for your ambiance is up to you. Unless affairs crave otherwise, I alone adopt a annual abounding backup, nightly incremental backups, followed by annual accumulative incremental backups.

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Authors W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

Each band-aid requires some arrangement of HBA on anniversary client. Aback Fibre Channel HBAs are added expensive, we will use a bulk of $2,000 for the Fibre Channel HBAs, and $1,000 for the SCSI HBAs. We will alike accept you can admission SCSI HBAs that accept two SCSI buses per card. The SCSI band-aid requires 100 band drives, and the SAN band-aid requires bristles band drives. (We will use UHrium LTO drives for this example, which accept a congenital alteration acceleration of 15 MB/s and a discounted bulk of $9,000.) Aback the library needs to abundance at atomic one archetype of anniversary abounding advancement and 30 copies of anniversary incremental advancement from 25 1.5-TB hosts, this is apparently action to be a absolutely ample library. To accumulate things as simple as we can, let’s accept the band library for both solutions is the aforementioned admeasurement and the aforementioned cost. (In reality, the SCSI library would accept to be abundant beyond and added expensive.) For the SAN solution, we charge to buy two 16-port switches, and one four-to-one SAN router. Anniversary band-aid requires purchasing accessory server licenses from your advancement software bell-ringer for anniversary of the 25 hosts, so this will bulk the aforementioned for anniversary solution. (The SAN band-aid licenses adeptness bulk hardly added than the SCSI band-aid licenses.) As you can see in Table 4-1, there is a $700,000 aberration in the bulk of these two solutions.

What about the aboriginal requirements above, you ask? What if you alone charge to aback up three ample hosts? A three-host SAN band-aid requires the acquirement of a abundant abate about-face and alone one router. It requires 12 band drives for the SCSI band-aid but alone bristles for the SAN solution. As you can see in Table 4-2, alike with these numbers, the SAN band-aid is over $40,000 cheaper than the SCSI solution.

 

Parallel SCSI solution

SAN solution

 

Quantity

Total

Quantity

Total

Tape drives

12

$108K

5

$45K

HBAs

3

$3K

3

$6K

Switch

None

 

1

$8K

Router

None

 

1

$7K

Device server

software

Same

 

Same

 

Tape library

Same

 

Same

 

Total

 

$111K

 

$66K

The abstracts in the antecedent breadth shows that administration band drives amid servers can be a Adequate Thing. But how can assorted servers allotment the aforementioned concrete band drive? This is able in one of two ways. Either the bell-ringer uses the SCSI assets and absolution commands, or they apparatus their own queuing system.

Tape drives aren’t the aboriginal peripherals that bare to be accumulated amid two or added computers. In fact, abounding pre-SAN aerial availability systems were based on deejay drives that were affiliated to assorted systems via standard, alongside SCSI. (This is referred to as a multiple-initiator system.) In adjustment to achieve this possible, the commands assets and absolution were added to the SCSI-2 specification. The afterward is a description of how they were advised to work.

Each arrangement that wants to admission a accurate accessory issues the SCSI assets command. If no added accessory has ahead aloof the device, the arrangement is accepted admission to the device. If accession arrangement has already aloof the device, the apparatus requesting the accessory is accustomed a resolution battle message. Already a catch is granted, it charcoal accurate until one of the afterward things happen:

If you amalgamate the abstraction of the SCSI assets command with a SCSI bus that is affiliated to added than one architect (host HBA), you get a agreement breadth assorted hosts can allotment the aforementioned accessory by artlessly reserving it above-mentioned to apparatus it. This accessory can be a deejay drive, band drive, or SCSI-controlled automatic arm of a band library. The afterward is an archetype of how the agreement works.

Each host that needs to put a band into a drive attempts to assets the use of the automatic arm with the SCSI assets command. If it’s accustomed a resolution battle message, it waits a agreed aeon of time and tries afresh until it auspiciously affluence it. If it’s accepted a catch to the automatic arm, it afresh attempts to assets a band drive apparatus the SCSI assets command. If it’s accustomed a resolution battle bulletin while attempting to assets the aboriginal drive in the library, it continues aggravating to assets anniversary drive until it either auspiciously affluence one or is accustomed a resolution battle bulletin for anniversary one. If this happens, it issues a SCSI absolution command for the automatic arm and afresh waits a agreed aeon of time and tries again. It continues to do this until it auspiciously puts a band into a aloof drive. Already done, it can afresh aback up to the drive via the SAN.

This description is how the designers advised it to work. However, accumulated drive systems that use the SCSI reserve/release adjustment run into a cardinal of issues, so abounding bodies accede the SCSI reserve/release command set to be fundamentally flawed. For example, one such blemish is that a SCSI bus displace releases the reservation. Aback SCSI bus resets appear beneath a cardinal of conditions, including arrangement reboots, it’s awful attainable to absolutely abash your catch arrangement with the reboot of alone one server affiliated to the accumulated device. Accession affair with the SCSI reserve/release adjustment is that not all platforms abutment it. Therefore, a accumulated drive arrangement that uses the SCSI reserve/release adjustment is bound to the platforms on which these commands are supported.

Most advancement software vendors use the third-party queuing adjustment for accumulated devices. Aback I anticipate of how this works, I anticipate my two baby daughters. Their adjustment of toy administration is a lot like the SCSI reserve/release method. Whoever gets the toy aboriginal gets it as continued as she wants it. However, as anon as one of them has one toy, the added one wants it. The one who wants the toy consistently asks the added one for it. However, the one that already has the toy issues a resolution battle message. (It sounds like, “Mine!”) The one that wants the toy is usually assiduous enough, however, that Mom or Dad accept to intervene. Not absolute elegant, is it?

A third-party queuing arrangement is like accepting Daddy sit amid the accouchement and the toys, breadth anniversary adolescent has abounding adeptness of what toys are available, but the alone way they can get a toy is to ask Daddy for it. If the toy is in use, Daddy artlessly says, “You can’t accept that toy adapted now. Accept another.” Afresh already the adolescent asks for a toy that’s not actuality used, Daddy calmly it over. Aback the adolescent is done with the toy, Daddy allotment it to the toy bin.

There are two capital differences amid the SCSI reserve/release adjustment and the third-party queuing method:

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Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

In accession to accomplishing drive administration via altered methods, advancement software companies additionally adapt in how they acquiesce libraries and their drives to be shared. In adjustment to accept what I mean, I charge explain a few terms. A capital server is the axial advancement server in any advancement configuration. It contains the schedules and indexes for all backups and acts as a axial point of ascendancy for a accumulation of advancement clients. A accessory server has alone band drives that accept advancement abstracts from clients. The capital server controls its actions. This is accepted as a three-tiered advancement system, breadth the capital server can acquaint a advancement applicant to aback up to the capital server’s band drives or to the band drives on one of its accessory servers. Some advancement software articles don’t abutment accessory servers and crave all backups to be transmitted beyond the LAN to the capital server. This blazon of artefact is accepted as a two-tiered advancement system. (A single-tiered advancement artefact would abutment alone backups to a server’s own band drives. An archetype of such a artefact would be the software that comes with an bargain band drive.)

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One of the absolutely admirable things about administration band drives in a library via a SAN is what happens aback it’s time to restore. First, accede the alongside abstraction illustrated in Table 4-2. Aback alone three drives are attainable to anniversary host, alone three drives will be attainable during the restores as well. Alike if your advancement software had the adeptness to apprehend added than three tapes at a time, you wouldn’t be able to do so.

However, if you are administration the drives dynamically, a restore could be accustomed admission to all attainable drives. If your backups action at night, and best of your restores action during the day, you would apparently be accustomed admission to all drives in the library during best restores. Depending on the capabilities of your advancement software package, this can acutely admission the acceleration of your restore.

TIP:   Few advancement software articles can use added drives during a restore than they did during a backup, but that isn’t to say that such articles don’t exist.

As of this writing, there are at atomic three added agency to allotment accessories afterwards apparatus a SAN. Although this is a affiliate about SAN technology, I anticipation it adapted to acknowledgment them here.

The Arrangement Abstracts Administration Agreement (NDMP), originally advised by Arrangement Apparatus and PDC/Intelliguard (acquired by Legato) to aback up filers, offers accession way to allotment a band library. There are a few vendors that accept band libraries that can be accumulated via NDMP.

Here’s how it works. First, the vendors advised a baby computer arrangement to abutment the “tape server” functionality of NDMP:

They afresh affix the SCSI bus of this computer to a band drive in the library, and the Ethernet anchorage of this computer to your LAN. (Current implementations accept one of these computers for anniversary band drive, giving anniversary band drive its own affiliation to the LAN.) The action of the computer arrangement is to catechumen abstracts advancing beyond the LAN in raw TCP/IP architecture and to address it as SCSI abstracts via a bounded accessory disciplinarian which understands the drive type. Aboriginal implementations are apparatus DLT 8000s and 100-Mb Ethernet, because the acceleration of a 100-Mb arrangement is able-bodied akin to a 10-MB/s DLT. By the time you apprehend this, there will apparently be newer implementations that use Gigabit Ethernet and faster band drives.

Not alone does this accord you a way to aback up your filers; it additionally offers accession advantage for abetment up your broadcast machines. As will be discussed in Affiliate 7, NDMP v4 supports abetment up a accepted (non-NDMP) advancement applicant to an NDMP-capable device. Aback this NDMP library looks aloof like accession filer to the advancement server, you can use it to achieve backups of non-NDMP audience with this feature. Aback the band library does the job of tracking which drives are in use and won’t acquiesce added than one advancement server to use it at a time, you can finer allotment this band library with any advancement server on the LAN.

SCSI over IP, additionally accepted as iSCSI, is a rather new abstraction aback compared to Fibre Channel, but it’s accepting a lot of ground. A SCSI accessory with an iSCSI adapter is attainable to any host on the LAN that additionally has an iSCSI interface card. Proponents of iSCSI say that Fibre Channel-based SANs are complex, expensive, and congenital on standards that are still actuality finalized. They accept that SANs based on iSCSI will breach these problems. This is because Ethernet is an old accepted that has acquired boring in such a way that about all accessories charcoal interoperable. SCSI is additionally accession accepted that’s been about a continued time and is a absolute accustomed protocol.

The one limitation to iSCSI today is that it’s attainable for a host to bathe a 100-MB/s Fibre Channel pipe, but it’s difficult for the aforementioned host to bathe a 100-MB/s (1000 Mb or 1 Gb) Ethernet pipe. Therefore, although the architectures action about the aforementioned speed, they aren’t necessarily equivalent. iSCSI vendors apprehend this and are accordingly accept developed arrangement interface cards (NICs) that can acquaint “at band speed.” One way to do this is to offload the TCP/IP processing from the host and achieve it on the NIC itself. Now that vendors accept started aircraft gigabit NICs that can acquaint at band speed, iSCSI stands to achieve cogent adapted into the SAN marketplace. Added advice about iSCSI can be actuate in Appendix A.

There are some vendors that accommodate accumulated admission to SCSI accessories via accepted alongside SCSI. Aback all the LAN-free implementations that I accept credible accept acclimated Fibre Channel, it’s cryptic how able-bodied such articles would be accurate by drive-sharing products.

I accept heard belletrist of difficulties acquired by an alone host rebooting while a drive on the SAN is in use by accession host. On some operating systems, alive drives aren’t credible by the operating system, and appropriately aren’t attainable to use. Alike worse, it sometimes causes the attainable drives’ names to be changed, consistent in a absolutely busted set of drives. Some vendors accept formed about the missing-drives problems apparatus able SAN routers. Some vendors accept formed about name-change problems by absorbed the basal name of the drive to the drive’s absolute consecutive number. Achieve abiding you allocution to your SAN accouterments and software vendors about how they handle this situation.

LAN-free backups breach a lot of problems by removing advancement cartage from the LAN. Aback accumulated with bartering interfaces to database advancement APIs, they can accommodate a fast way to aback up your databases. However, what happens if you accept an apparatus that is consistently alteration data, and for which there is no API? Similarly, what if you can’t acquiesce to acquirement the interface to that API from your advancement software company? Usually, the alone acknowledgment is to shut bottomward the apparatus during the absolute time of the backup.

One band-aid to this botheration is to use a client-free advancement solution, which is covered in the aing section. However, client-free backups are expensive, and they are meant to breach added problems (and accommodate added features) than this. If you don’t charge all the functionality provided by client-free backups, but you still accept the botheration declared earlier, conceivably what you charge is a snapshot. In my book Unix Advancement and Recovery, I alien the abstraction of snapshots as a affection I’d like to see chip into bartering advancement and accretion products, and a cardinal of them now action it.

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Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

A snapshot is a basal archetype of a accessory or filesystem. Anticipate of it as a Windows adjustment or Unix allegorical articulation to a accessory that has been arctic in time. Aloof as a allegorical articulation or adjustment isn’t absolutely a archetype of a book or accessory that it credibility to, a snapshot is a allegorical (or virtual) representation of a book or device. The alone aberration amid a snapshot and a adjustment or allegorical articulation is that the snapshot consistently mimics the way that book or accessory looked at the time the snapshot was taken.

In adjustment to booty snapshots, you charge accept snapshot software. This software can be actuate in any of the afterward places:

Let’s analysis why we are attractive at snapshots. Accept you achieve LAN-free backups but accept an apparatus for which there is no API or can’t acquiesce the API for an application. You are accordingly adapted to shut bottomward the apparatus during backups. You appetite article bigger but aren’t yet attainable for the bulk of client-free backups, nor do you charge all the functionality they provide. Therefore, you charge the blazon of snapshots that are attainable alone from an avant-garde filesystem, a host-based aggregate manager, or a advancement software add-on artefact that emulates this functionality. An action accumulator arrangement that can actualize snapshots (that are arresting from the host of which the snapshot was taken) additionally works able in this situation, but it isn’t necessary. Accept whichever band-aid works best in your environment. Regardless of how you booty the snapshot, best snapshot software works about the aforementioned way.

When you actualize a snapshot, the snapshot software annal the time at which the snapshot was taken. Already the snapshot is taken, it gives you and your advancement annual accession name through which you may appearance the snapshot of the accessory or filesystem. It looks like any added accessory or filesystem, but it’s absolutely a allegorical representation of the device. Creating the snapshot doesn’t absolutely archetype abstracts from diska to diska.snapshot, but it appears as if that’s absolutely what happened. If you attending at diska.snapshot, you’ll see diska absolutely as it looked at the moment diska.snapshot was created.

Creating the snapshot takes alone a few seconds. Sometimes bodies accept a adamantine time acquisitive how the software can actualize a abstracted appearance of the accessory afterwards artful it. This is why it’s alleged a snapshot; it doesn’t absolutely archetype the data, it alone took a “picture” of it.

Once the snapshot has been created, best snapshot software (or firmware in the array) monitors the accessory for activity. Aback it sees that a block of abstracts is action to change, it annal the “before” angel of that block in a adapted logging breadth (often alleged the snapshot device). Alike if a accurate block changes several times, it alone needs to almanac the way it looked afore the aboriginal change occurred.

For accommodation on how this works, amuse argue your vendor’s manual. Aback you appearance the accessory or filesystem via the snapshot basal accessory or arise point, it watches what you’re attractive for. If you appeal a block of abstracts that has not afflicted aback the snapshot was taken, it retrieves that block from the aboriginal accessory or filesystem. However, if you appeal a block of abstracts that has afflicted aback the snapshot was taken, it retrieves that block from the snapshot device. This, of course, is absolutely airy to the user or apparatus accessing the data. The user or apparatus artlessly angle the accessory via the snapshot accessory or arise point, and breadth the blocks appear from is managed by the snapshot software or firmware.

Now that you can actualize a “copy” of your arrangement in aloof a few seconds, you accept a absolutely altered way to aback up an bottomless application. Artlessly stop the application, actualize the snapshot (which alone takes a few seconds) and restart the application. As far as the apparatus is concerned, the advancement takes alone a few seconds. However, there is a achievement hit while the abstracts is actuality backed up to the locally absorbed band library (that is actuality accumulated with added hosts via a LAN-free advancement setup). The bulk to which this affects the achievement of your apparatus will, of course, vary. The alone way to aback up this abstracts afterwards affecting the apparatus during the absolute alteration of abstracts from deejay to band is to use client-free backups.

TIP:   One bell-ringer uses the appellation “snapshot” to accredit to snapshots as declared here, and to alarm added mirrors created for the purpose of backup, which is discussed in the breadth “Client-Free Backups.” I’m not abiding why they do this, and I acquisition it confusing. In this book, the appellation snapshot will consistently accredit to a virtual, copy-on-write archetype as discussed here.

LAN-free backups breach a lot of problems. They acquiesce you to allotment one or added band libraries amid your analytical servers, acceptance anniversary to aback up abundant faster than they could beyond the LAN. It removes the accumulated of the abstracts alteration from the LAN, absolution your LAN for added uses. It additionally reduces the CPU and anamnesis aerial of backups on the clients, because they no best accept to address their advancement abstracts via TCP/IP. However, there are still downsides to LAN-free backups. Let’s booty a attending at a LAN-free advancement arrangement to see what these downsides are.

A archetypal LAN-free advancement arrangement is credible in Bulk 4-4, breadth the database resides on disks that are arresting to the abstracts server. These disks may be a set of alert disks central the abstracts server, a deejay arrangement with or afterwards mirroring, or an action accumulator array. In adjustment to aback up the data, the abstracts charge be apprehend from the disks by the abstracts server (1a) and transferred beyond the abstracts server’s backplane, CPU, and anamnesis via some affectionate of advancement software. It’s afresh beatific to band drives on the abstracts server (1b). This is accurate alike if you use the snapshot technology discussed earlier. Alike admitting you’ve created a changeless appearance of the abstracts to aback up, you still charge aback up the abstracts locally.

 

This, of course, requires apparatus the CPU, memory, and backplane of the abstracts server absolutely a bit. The apparatus is abnormally affected, or alike shut down, during the absolute time it takes to alteration the database from deejay to tape. The beyond the data, the greater the appulse on the abstracts server and the users. Also, adequate database accretion (including snapshot accretion systems like those declared at the end of the antecedent section) requires appointment the abstracts aback beyond the aforementioned path, slowing bottomward a accretion that should go as fast as possible.

With this blazon of setup, a accretion takes as continued or best than the advancement and is bound by the I/O bandwidth of the abstracts server. This includes alone the accretion of the database files themselves. If it’s a database you are recovering, the replaying of the transaction logs adds a cogent aggregate of time on top of that.

Let’s booty a attending at anniversary of these limitations in added detail.

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Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

You’d anticipate that abetment up abstracts to locally absorbed band drives would present a basal appulse to the application. It absolutely creates abundant beneath of a bulk than archetypal LAN-based backups. In reality, however, the aggregate of throughput adapted to complete the advancement aural an adequate window can sometimes actualize absolutely a bulk on the server, annexation adored assets bare by the apparatus the server is running. The bulk to which the apparatus is afflicted depends on assertive factors:

Please apprehension that the aftermost catechism asked about aback the apparatus is needed–not aback it’s actuality used. The acumen the catechism is worded this way is that too abounding businesses accept gotten acclimated to systems that aren’t attainable during the advancement window. They accept developed to apprehend this, so they artlessly don’t try to use it at that time. They would use it if they could, but they can’t–so they don’t. The catechism is, “Would you like to be able to admission your arrangement 24 × 7?” If the acknowledgment is yes, you charge to architecture a advancement and accretion arrangement that creates basal appulse on the application.

Almost all applications are impacted in some way during LAN-based or LAN-free backups. Book servers booty best to action book requests. If you accept a database and can achieve backups with the database running, your database may booty best to action queries and commits. If your database apparatus requires you to shut bottomward the database to achieve a backup, the appulse on users is abundant greater.

Whether you are slowing bottomward book or database services, or you are absolutely awkward all database activity, it will be for some aeon of time. The continuance of this aeon is bent by four factors:

This is the alone acumen you are abetment up, right? Abounding bodies abort to booty accretion acceleration into apparatus aback designing a advancement and accretion arrangement aback they should be accomplishing about the opposite. They should architecture a advancement and accretion arrangement in such a way that it can balance the arrangement aural an adequate window. In about every case, this additionally after-effects in a arrangement that can aback up the arrangement aural an adequate window.

If your advancement arrangement is based on affective abstracts from deejay to tape, and your accretion arrangement is based on affective abstracts from band to disk, the accretion time is consistently a agency of the questions in the antecedent section. They abscess bottomward to two basal questions: how abundant abstracts do you accept to move, and what assets are attainable to move it?

Of advance applications are afflicted during backups. Accretion takes as long, if not longer, than the backup. There’s artlessly no way to get about this, right? That was the absolute acknowledgment up until aloof recently; however, client-free backups accept afflicted the rules.

What if there was a way you could aback up a accustomed server’s abstracts with about no appulse to the application? If there were any impact, it would aftermost for alone a few seconds. What if you could balance a multi-terabyte database instantaneously? Wouldn’t that be wonderful? That’s what client-free backups can do for you.

Performing client-free advancement and accretion requires the allocation of several achieve beyond at atomic two hosts. At one point in time, none of the accepted bartering advancement and accretion applications had software that could automate all the achieve afterwards acute custom scripting by the administrator. All aboriginal implementations of client-free backups circuitous a cogent aggregate of scripting on the allotment of the administrator, and about all aboriginal implementations of client-free backups were on Unix servers. This was for several reasons, the aboriginal of which was demand. Abounding bodies had absolutely large, multi-terabyte Unix servers that able as candidates for client-free backups. This led to a lot of cooperation amid the accumulator arrangement vendors and the Unix vendors, which led to commands that could run on a Unix arrangement and achieve the tasks adapted to achieve client-free backups possible. Aback abounding of these tasks adapted achieve to be accommodating on assorted computers, the rsh and ssh capabilities of Unix came in handy.

Since NT systems lacked integrated, avant-garde scripting support, and communications amid NT machines were attainable for administrators to script, it wasn’t simple to architecture a scripted band-aid for NT client-free backups. (As you will see afterwards in this section, accession key basic that was missing was the adeptness to arise cast new drive belletrist from the command line.) This, accumulated with the actuality that NT machines tended to use beneath accumulator than their caked Unix counterparts, meant that there were not a lot of aboriginal implementations of client-free advancement on NT. However, things accept afflicted in contempo years. It isn’t aberrant to acquisition absolute ample Windows machines. (I alone accept credible one aing a terabyte.) Scripting and intermachine advice has bigger in contempo years, but the limitation of not actuality able to arise drives via the command band has existed until aloof recently. Therefore, it’s adequate that a few bartering advancement software companies are alpha to absolution client-free advancement software that includes the Windows platform. Those of us with absolute ample Windows machines can assuredly booty advantage of this technology.

Windows isn’t the alone belvedere for which bartering client-free applications are actuality written. As of this writing, I am acquainted of several articles (that are either in beta or accept aloof been released) that will accommodate chip client-free advancement and accretion functionality for at atomic four versions of Unix (AIX, HP-UX, Solaris, and Tru64).

The aing breadth attempts to explain all the achieve a client-free advancement arrangement charge complete. These achieve can be scripted, or they can be managed by an chip bartering client-free advancement software package. Hopefully, by account the achieve in detail, you will accept a greater acknowledgment of the functionality client-free backups provide, as able-bodied as the complication of the apparatus that accommodate them.

Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

As you can see in Bulk 4-5, there is SAN-connected accumulator that is attainable to at atomic two systems: the abstracts server and a advancement server. The accumulator consists of a primary deejay set and a advancement mirror, which is artlessly an added archetype of the primary deejay set. (In the figure, the primary deejay set is mirrored, as represented by the M1/M2.) Agenda that the SAN-connected accumulator is depicted as a single, ample multihosted accumulator arrangement with an internal, prewired SAN. The acumen for this is that all aboriginal implementations of client-free backups accept been with such accumulator arrays. As discussed earlier, there are now action aggregate managers that will achieve it attainable to do this with JBOD on a SAN, but I use the abstraction of a ample accumulator arrangement in this archetype because it’s the band-aid that’s attainable from the best vendors–even if it’s the best expensive.

 

The accustomed cachet quo of the advancement mirror is that it’s larboard breach from the primary deejay set. Why it’s larboard breach will become bright afterwards in this section.

At the adapted time, the advancement apparatus performs a alternation of tasks:

These tasks beggarly that the advancement abstracts is beatific via the SAN to the advancement server and doesn’t biking through the applicant at all, which is why it’s referred to as client-free backups. Again, some vendors accredit to this as server-free backups, but I assets that appellation for a specific blazon of advancement that will be covered in the section, “Server-Free Backups.”

You may acquisition yourself allurement a few questions:

Before acknowledgment this action in detail, let’s appraise a few things that achieve client-free backups possible:

Before continuing this account of client-free backups, I charge ascertain some agreement that will be acclimated in the afterward example. Amuse accept that there are assorted vendors that action this functionality, and they all use altered analogue and all assignment hardly differently.

TIP:   The lists that chase in the blow of this affiliate accord examples for Compaq, EMC, and Hitachi apparatus Exchange, Informix, Oracle, and SQL Server databases, and the Veritas Aggregate Ambassador and Book System. These examples are for description alone and aren’t meant to betoken that this functionality is attainable alone on these platforms or to announce an endorsement of these products. These vendors are listed in alphabetical adjustment throughout, and so no inferences should be fabricated as to the author’s addition for one bell-ringer over another. There are several multihosted accumulator arrangement vendors and several database vendors. Argue your bell-ringer for specifics on how this works on your platform.

Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

Image Gallery Lto-12 Labels - lto 6 tape labels
Image Gallery Lto-12 Labels – lto 6 tape labels | lto 6 tape labels

This breadth explains what’s circuitous in abetment up a advancement mirror to accession server.

Figure 4-6 afresh illustrates a archetypal advancement mirror advancement configuration. There is a capital advancement server (Backup Server A) that is affiliated to a band library (via SCSI or Fibre Channel) and affiliated to the abstracts server via a LAN. The abstracts server is affiliated via Fibre Channel to the accumulator array, and its datafiles and transaction logs abide on its primary deejay sets. The datafiles accept a advancement mirror associated with them, and it’s affiliated via Fibre Channel to a accessory server (Backup Server B), and that accessory server is affiliated via SCSI to accession band library.

 

TIP:   Multihosted accumulator arrays accept a SAN congenital into them. You can put added switches or hubs amid the accumulator arrangement and the servers aing to it, but it isn’t all-important unless the cardinal of servers that you ambition to affix to the accumulator arrangement exceeds the cardinal of Fibre Channel ports the arrangement has.

To aback up a database, you charge aback up its datafiles (and added files) and its transaction logs. The datafiles accommodate the absolute database, and the transaction logs accommodate the changes to the database aback the aftermost time you backed up the datafiles. Already you restore the datafiles, the transaction logs can afresh epitomize the affairs that occurred amid the time of the datafile advancement and the time of the failure. Therefore, you charge aback up the transaction logs continually, because they are capital to a adequate recovery.

As credible in Bulk 4-7, transaction logs are generally backed up to deejay (1), and afresh to band (2). This is my claimed preference, but it isn’t required. The acumen I adopt to aback up to deejay and afresh to band is that replaying the transaction logs is the slowest allotment of the restore, and accepting the transaction logs attainable on deejay decidedly speeds up the process. The log deejay may or may not be on the accumulator arrangement and doesn’t charge a advancement mirror.

 

You can additionally see in Figures 4-5 and 4-6 that the transaction logs don’t charge to be backed up via the breach mirror. The acumen for this is that there is no accurate methods for abetment up transaction logs this way. Therefore, there is no acumen to put them on the advancement mirror.

As discussed previously, the advancement mirror is larboard breach from the primary deejay set (3). The afterward annual accommodation how transaction logs are backed with Exchange, Informix, Oracle, and SQL Server:

It’s now time to aback up the datafiles. In adjustment to do that, you must:

The accommodation of how these achieve are able are discussed next.

Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

As credible in Bulk 4-8, you charge authorize (reattach) the advancement mirror to the primary deejay set (1), causing the mirror to archetype to the advancement mirror any regions that accept been adapted aback the advancement mirror was aftermost accustomed (2).

 

The afterward annual shows how this works for the assorted products:

set mirrorset-name nopolicy

set mirrorset-name members=3

set mirrorset-name replace=disk-name

# symbcv authorize -g group_name [-i]

# paircreate -g device_group

As credible in Bulk 4-9, already the advancement mirror is absolutely synchronized with the primary deejay set, you accept to acquaint the abstracts server to put the database in advancement approach (1). In best client-server advancement environments, this is commonly able by cogent the advancement software to run a calligraphy above-mentioned to a backup. The botheration actuality is the advancement client, breadth the calligraphy is commonly run, isn’t the host breadth the calligraphy needs to run. The applicant in Bulk 4-9 is absolutely the Advancement Server B, not Abstracts Server. This agency that you charge to use article like rsh or ssh to canyon the command from Advancement Server B to Abstracts Server. There are now ssh servers attainable for both Unix and Windows. The commands you charge to run on Abstracts Server will acutely depend on the application.

 

Here are the achieve for Exchange, Informix, Oracle, and SQL Server:

net stop “Microsoft Exchange Directory” /y

net stop “Microsoft Exchange Event Service” /y

net stop “Microsoft Exchange Advice Store” /y

net stop “Microsoft Exchange Internet Mail Service” /y

net stop “Microsoft Exchange Bulletin Alteration Agent” /y

net stop “Microsoft Exchange Arrangement Attendant” /y

net stop MSSQLSERVER

Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

As credible in Bulk 4-9, already the database is put into advancement mode, the advancement mirror is breach from the primary deejay set (2).

This breach requires a cardinal of commands on the Compaq array. First, you set the nopolicy banderole with the command set mirrorset-name nopolicy. Afresh you breach the mirror by arising the command abate disk-name for anniversary deejay in the BCV. Afresh you actualize a assemblage name for anniversary deejay with the command add assemblage unit-name disk-name. Finally, you achieve that assemblage arresting to the advancement server by arising the commands set assemblage unit-name disable_access_path=all and set assemblage unit-name enable_access_path=(backupserver-name).

To do this on EMC, run the command symbcv breach -g device_group on the advancement server. To do this on Hitachi, run the command pairsplit -g device_group. (On both EMC and Hitachi, the advancement mirror accessories are fabricated arresting to the advancement server as allotment of the accumulator array’s configuration.)

Now that the advancement mirror is split, you can booty the database out of advancement mode. Actuality are the accommodation of demography the databases out of advancement mode:

net alpha “Microsoft Exchange Directory” /y

net alpha “Microsoft Exchange Event Service” /y

net alpha “Microsoft Exchange Advice Store” /y

net alpha “Microsoft Exchange Internet Mail Service” /y

net alpha “Microsoft Exchange Bulletin Alteration Agent” /y

net alpha “Microsoft Exchange Arrangement Attendant” /y

net alpha MSSQLSERVER

This footfall is the best OS-specific and complicated step, aback it involves apparatus OS-level aggregate ambassador and filesystem commands. However, the bulge of the Veritas Aggregate Ambassador makes this a little simpler. Veritas Aggregate Ambassador is now attainable for HP-UX, Solaris, NT, and Windows 2000. Also, the congenital aggregate ambassador for Tru64 is an OEM adaptation of Aggregate Manager.

On the abstracts server, the analytic volumes are army as filesystems (or drives) or acclimated as raw accessories on Unix for a database. As credible in Bulk 4-9, you charge to bulk out what advancement mirror accessories accord to which deejay group, acceptation those deejay groups to the advancement server (3), actuate the deejay groups (which turns on the analytic volumes), and arise the filesystems if there are any. This is apparently the best difficult allotment of the procedure, but it’s attainable to automate it.

It isn’t attainable to accredit drive belletrist to accessories via the command band in NT and Windows 2000 afterwards the full-priced adaptation of the Veritas Aggregate Manager. Therefore, the achieve in the annual that follows accept you are apparatus this product. Except breadth noted, the commands discussed aing should assignment about the aforementioned on both Unix and NT systems. If you don’t appetite to pay for the full-priced aggregate ambassador product, there is an alternate, although abundant beneath automated, adjustment discussed at the end of the Veritas-based steps.

You can address a calligraphy that discovers the names of the deejay groups on the advancement mirror and uses the command vxdg -n newname -t acceptation volume-group to acceptation the disk/volume groups from the advancement server. (The -t advantage specifies that the new name is alone temporary.) The afterward annual is a abrupt arbitrary of how this works. It’s not meant to be an exact step-by-step guide; it gives you an all-embracing account of what’s circuitous in advertent and ascent the advancement mirror.

You now accept a annual of deejay groups that can be alien from the advancement mirror.

TIP:   It’s astute to achieve an fsck or chkdisk of the advancement mirror’s filesystems at this point.

As mentioned before, if you are alive Windows and don’t ambition to pay for the full-priced adaptation of Aggregate Manager, you can’t accredit the drive belletrist via the command line. Aback it isn’t reasonable to apprehend you to go to the GUI every night during backups, an addition adjustment is to achieve the afterward achieve manually anniversary time there is a agreement change to the advancement mirror:

TIP:  It’s astute to achieve a chkdisk of the advancement mirror’s disks at this point.

This is the attainable part. Ascertain a advancement agreement to aback up the filesystems, drives, or raw accessories that were actuate on the advancement mirror. Aback the volumes are absolutely alien and/or army on the advancement server, the advancement server should be listed as the applicant for this advancement configuration. As credible in Bulk 4-9, the abstracts is beatific from the advancement mirror to the advancement server (4a), and afresh to band (4b).

The transaction logs should be backed up to deejay and to band (as credible in Bulk 4-7) before, during, and afterwards this operation.

And that’s all there is to client-free backup!Click actuality to buy book

Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

Nobody cares if you can aback up–only if you can recover. How do you balance from such a bizarre setup? This is absolutely breadth the adorableness of accepting the advancement mirror break breach and army comes in. Unless the absolute accumulator arrangement is destroyed, it’s attainable for an actual restore. However, let’s alpha with the worst-case scenario: the absolute accumulator arrangement was destroyed and has been replaced.

As credible in Bulk 4-10, the affliction attainable affair that can appear is if article adverse happens to the accumulator array, antibacterial the primary deejay set, advancement mirror, and transaction log advancement disk. Because of the acute aggregate of proactive ecology best of the action accumulator arrays have, this is rather absurd to happen. In fact, with the advancement mirror larboard breach best of the time, about the alone credible way for both the advancement mirror and the primary deejay set to be damaged is complete aition of the concrete unit, such as by fire. The aboriginal footfall in this accretion is that the accumulator arrangement must, of course, be repaired or reinstalled.

 

Once the accumulator arrangement is absolutely functional, you charge to restore the advancement mirror from band as credible in Bulk 4-11 (1a-b). While this is action on, the transaction log backups can additionally be adequate from band to deejay (2a, b, and c). This allows them to be anon attainable already the advancement mirror is restored.

Tape Label Studio - Automatic Mode - lto 6 tape labels
Tape Label Studio – Automatic Mode – lto 6 tape labels | lto 6 tape labels

 

Once the accretion of the advancement mirror has been completed from tape, we can move on to the aing step. (Of course, if you don’t accept to balance the advancement mirror from tape, you can alpha with the aing step.)

This accretion is abundant added acceptable to action and will action beneath the three afterward circumstances:

The action now is to balance the primary deejay set from the advancement mirror, epitomize the transaction logs, and accompany the database online.

You now charge to acquaint the accumulator arrangement to archetype the abstracts from the advancement mirror aback to the primary deejay set. Here’s how to do so:

 

Since the disk-based transaction log depression were recovered in a antecedent step, you can now alpha the transaction log restore from the disk-based transaction log backups (see Bulk 4-13).

 

Here’s an overview of how to do this for Exchange, Informix, Oracle, and SQL Server:

$ sqlplus /nolog > affix /as sysdba > startup arise ; > balance database ;

Click actuality to buy book

Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

Once the transaction log accretion is complete, the database is absolutely online, whether or not the advancement mirror has been absolutely adequate to the primary deejay set (see Bulk 4-14).

 

Isn’t that accretion book a admirable thing? Imagine convalescent a 10-TB database in beneath a minute. If you charge the ultimate in burning recovery, it’s difficult to exhausted the abstraction of client-free advancement and recovery.

Some bodies adulation to accept an absolute archetype of their database or book server sitting there at all times aloof cat-and-mouse for an burning restore. Others feel that this is a decay of money. All that added deejay can bulk absolutely a bit. They like the abstraction of client-free backups–backing up the abstracts through a arrangement added than the arrangement that is apparatus the data. However, they don’t appetite to pay for accession set of disks to abundance the advancement mirror. What do they do?

The aboriginal affair some do is to allotment the advancement mirror. Whether the advancement mirror is in an action accumulator arrangement or a accumulation of JBOD that is fabricated attainable on the SAN for that purpose, it’s attainable to authorize this advancement mirror to added than one primary deejay set. Acutely you can’t aback up added than one primary deejay set at one time apparatus this method, but accept you accept primary deejay sets A and B. Already you accomplishment establishing, splitting, and abetment up primary deejay set A, you can authorize the advancement mirror to primary deejay set B, breach it, afresh aback it up again. Abounding bodies circle their advancement mirrors this way.

However, some accumulator vendors accept a band-aid that’s beneath big-ticket than accepting a abstracted advancement mirror for anniversary primary deejay set and is added afflicted than alternating a distinct advancement mirror amid assorted primary deejay sets: snapshots.

Again, let’s alpha with an action accumulator arrangement or a accumulation of JBOD actuality managed by an action aggregate manager. Recall that in the antecedent breadth “LAN-Free Backups,” some aggregate managers and accumulator arrays can actualize a basal copy, or a snapshot. To accession host that can see it, it looks the aforementioned as a advancement mirror. It’s a changeless “picture” of what the volumes looked like at a accurate time.

Creating the snapshot is agnate to the footfall breadth you breach off the advancement mirror. There is no footfall breadth you charge authorize the snapshot. You artlessly abode the apparatus into a advancement status, actualize the snapshot, and afresh booty the apparatus out of advancement status. Afterwards that, the accumulator arrangement or action aggregate ambassador software makes the accessory arresting to accession host. You afresh achieve the aforementioned achieve as categorical in the antecedent breadth “Backing Up the Advancement Mirror,” for importing and ascent the volumes on the advancement server. Already that is accomplished, you can aback it up aloof like any added device.

Similar to the advancement mirror backup, the snapshot can about be larboard about in case of recovery. However, best snapshot recoveries aren’t action to be as fast as the advancement mirror accretion discussed earlier. Although the abstracts can still be afflicted from deejay to disk, the accretion may not be as instantaneous. However, aback this breadth of the industry is alteration so fast, this may no best be the case by the time you apprehend this.

It should additionally be acclaimed that, clashing the advancement mirror, the snapshot still depends on the primary deejay set’s disks. Aback it’s alone a basal archetype of the disks, if the aboriginal disks are physically damaged, the snapshot becomes worthless. Therefore, snapshots accommodate quick accretion alone in the case of analytic bribery of the data, aback the snapshot still contains a noncorrupted archetype of the data.

This aberration on client-free advancement represents a accurate advantage for many. Depending on your configuration, this adjustment can be decidedly beneath big-ticket than a advancement mirror, while accouterment you absolutely the akin of recoverability you need.

So far in this chapter, we accept discussed LAN-free and client-free backups. LAN-free backups advice acceleration advancement and accretion by removing this cartage from the LAN. They acquiesce you to acquirement one or added absolutely ample band libraries and allotment those band libraries amid assorted servers. This allows you to booty advantage of the economies of calibration that ample libraries provide, as the bulk per MB usually decreases as the admeasurement of a library increases. Abetment up ample amounts of abstracts is abundant easier on the audience aback that abstracts is beatific via Fibre Channel, instead of actuality beatific beyond the LAN. Therefore, LAN-free backups abate the bulk to which backups affect any applications that are alive on the client.

Client-free backups additionally action assorted advantages. They aish about all apparatus appulse from the advancement client, aback all cogent I/O operations are performed on the advancement server. If you use a advancement mirror for anniversary set of primary deejay sets, they additionally action a about direct accretion method. However, this accretion acceleration does appear with a cogent cost, aback purchasing a advancement mirror for anniversary set of primary deejay sets requires purchasing added deejay accommodation afresh would contrarily be necessary. If your primary deejay set is mirrored, you charge to acquirement a advancement mirror, acute the acquirement of 50% added disk. If the primary deejay set is a RAID 4 or RAID 5 volume, you will charge to acquirement about 100% added disk.

What about snapshots? You may bethink that we accept discussed snapshots as an alternating way to accommodate direct recoveries. However, snapshots (that accept not been backed up to tape) alone assure adjoin analytic corruption, and the accident of too abounding drives on the primary deejay set after-effects in a abandoned snapshot. Therefore, client-free backups that use a advancement mirror are the alone advancement and accretion architecture that offers direct accretion afterwards the accident of assorted drives on the primary deejay set.

The actual disadvantage to client-free backups is that you still charge a server to act as a abstracts aisle for the abstracts to be backed up. Let’s say that you’ve got several ample advancement audience alive the aforementioned operating system, and all of their accumulator resides on an action accumulator arrangement that can achieve client-free backups. Chances are that you are now talking about a cogent aggregate of accumulator to aback up anniversary night. In fact, abounding client-free advancement designs use abounding backups every night, because every book they aback up changes every night. This is the case with about any database that uses “cooked” files on the filesystem for its abstracts files and is consistently accurate of a database that uses raw accessories for the aforementioned purpose. (While there are a few block-level incremental bales available, they aren’t yet broadly used.) This agency that if you aback up bristles 2-TB clients, you are apparently abetment up 10 TB every night. Alike admitting you accept offloaded the abstracts alteration from the abstracts servers to the advancement server, you will charge a analytic ample server to aback up 10 TB every night, and that server can accept no purpose added than that.

With LAN-free backups, you aback up the abstracts afterwards apparatus the LAN. With client-free backups, you aback up the abstracts afterwards apparatus the client. What if you could alteration the abstracts anon from deejay to tape, afterwards action through any server at all? If you could, your backups would be absolutely server-free. As with client-free backups, applications are about absolutely unaffected, because few I/O operations are performed on the advancement client.

One cogent aberration amid client-free backups and server-free backups is that there are no acquaintance server-free advancement designs. The affidavit for this will become bright as you see how abysmal into the filesystem and accessory disciplinarian levels you charge go to achieve the task.

A absolutely server-free advancement has a abstracts aisle that doesn’t accommodate a server. It uses a server, of course, to ascendancy the process, but the abstracts moves anon from deejay to band afterwards action through any server’s CPU–including the advancement server. There are three capital requirements of server-free backup. You charge be able to:

In adjustment to use a advancement mirror bureaucracy to present a changeless archetype to the advancement application, you charge achieve the afterward steps:

If you ambition to use a snapshot to present a changeless archetype to the advancement application, you charge to achieve alone two steps:

WARNING:  Not all database applications admittance online third-party backups.

The procedures performed during this footfall are about the aforementioned as those acclimated for client-free backup. Therefore, if you charge added detail about these steps, amuse accredit to that breadth of this chapter.

Now that the advancement apparatus has a changeless appearance of the disks to aback up, you charge achieve an added footfall that is all-important because of the way you aback up the data. LAN-free and client-free backups aback up filesystem abstracts in the adequate way–via the filesystem. However, the adjustment server-free advancement uses to alteration the abstracts to band has no adeptness of the filesystem. As you’ll see in the aing step, it will artlessly alteration blocks of abstracts to tape.

Therefore, above-mentioned to appointment these blocks of abstracts to tape, you charge actualize a map of which blocks accord to which files. That way, aback the advancement apparatus is asked to restore a assertive file, it knows which blocks of abstracts to restore. Bulk 4-15 illustrates how this works. Book A consists of abstracts blocks A, B, and C. Book B consists of abstracts blocks D, E, and F. Already the snapshot or breach mirror has been created, these mappings abide affiliated until the breach mirror or snapshot is created again. While it’s static, the advancement apparatus annal the book associations for Book A and Book B. Aback the restore apparatus asks for Book A to be restored, the server-free advancement software knows it needs to restore deejay blocks A, B, and C.

 

The acumen for the footfall in the antecedent breadth is that the capital aberration amid client-free and server-free backups is the aisle the abstracts takes on its way to tape–as illustrated in Bulk 4-16. You’ll agenda that Bulk 4-16 looks abundant like Bulk 4-9 with a few accessory changes. First, you no best charge the committed advancement server that is credible to the adapted of the accumulator arrangement in Bulk 4-9. This agency that Advancement Server A takes the albatross of quiescing the apparatus that is autograph to the disk. Second, the band library and advancement mirror (or snapshot) charge be affiliated to a SAN with abutment for continued archetype (xcopy). Finally, instead of sending the abstracts to band via the advancement server (as credible in (4a) and (4b) in Bulk 4-9), the advancement software uses the SCSI continued archetype command to accelerate the abstracts anon from deejay to tape. This means, of course, that the abstracts is actuality backed up on the raw-device level. Device-level backups are generally referred to as image-level backups.

 

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Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

When abating abstracts from a server-free advancement system, you about restore the abstracts on the angel akin (file recoveries are attenuate but technically possible). Angel akin restores archetype the absolute angel aback from band to disk. Book akin restores act aloof like nonserver-free restores, artful the file(s) you baddest from band to disk. However, it’s important to acknowledgment that assuming server-free backups doesn’t necessarily beggarly you are action to achieve server-free restores. In fact, some server-free advancement applications don’t abutment server-free restores at all. The ones that do abutment server-free restores do so alone for image-level restores. To see why this is the case, let’s see how a server-free image-level restore works.

The server-free advancement arrangement in Bulk 4-17 is the aforementioned one illustrated in Bulk 4-16. Recall that we created a breach mirror or snapshot, afresh acclimated continued archetype to aback up that snapshot or mirror to tape. To about-face the process, you aboriginal accept to actualize the snapshot to which you’re action to restore. Aback the absolute snapshot is action to be overwritten, it absolutely doesn’t amount if it’s an earlier snapshot or one that was aloof taken. Regardless, the snapshot or breach mirror charge be created, as credible in (1) in Bulk 4-17. Next, the server-free advancement apparatus can use the xcopy command to restore the backed up abstracts anon from band to disk, as credible in (3).

 

The aing footfall is important. Aloof as you charge to stop the apparatus that was autograph to the deejay during backups, you charge to do so during the restore. Otherwise, you’d absolutely abash things and base the data. Also, depending on your operating arrangement and filesystem type, you usually charge to unmount the filesystem you’re about to restore. (This is credible as (4) in Bulk 4-17.) The acumen for this is that the aing footfall is action to absolutely overwrite the blocks beneath the filesystem. If you do this while the filesystem is mounted, the filesystem is anon corrupted. Finally, you can restore the angel from the advancement mirror or snapshot to the primary deejay set. Already this has been accomplished, arise the filesystem and resume the application. (If the apparatus is a database, you will apparently charge to achieve a transaction log restore first.)

TIP:  A absolutely anatomic server-free advancement arrangement automates all the antecedent achieve aback you baddest an image-level restore.

As complicated as image-level restores may seem, file-level restores from server-free backups are alike worse. In the top-left bend of Bulk 4-18, you can see the aboriginal file-to-disk mapping credible in Bulk 4-15. Below that, you can see that a snapshot or mirror is created of it, and that mirror is backed up to tape.

 

Time passes; files are added, deleted, and modified. Due to the way deejay technology works, you can see that Book A and Book B still use the aforementioned blocks, but the blocks are now in absolutely altered places on the disk. Now accept that Book B has been deleted, as represented by the white deejay blocks.

To achieve an image-level restore, you aboriginal charge to actualize a snapshot or mirror to restore to. This, of course, duplicates the new block blueprint of the disk. If you afresh restore the blocks of abstracts associated with Book B, you can see you’re abating them to the amiss place. This overwrites the blocks of some added file, which corrupts that file.

Therefore, file-level restores from server-free backups charge to be performed from the filesystem level, which is why file-level restores from server-free backups aren’t server-free at all. Aback you appeal a book to be restored, the advancement software knows that the book was backed up via an image-level server-free backup. It afresh consults its file-to-block map fabricated during that advancement and knows which blocks of abstracts it needs to apprehend from tape. Those blocks are afresh anesthetized to the applicant software alive on the applicant breadth the book needs to be. It afresh reassembles the blocks into a book it can canyon to the filesystem. The filesystem afresh places the file’s blocks in the adapted site.

The advantages of server-free backups and restores are rather significant:

Cost is the capital disadvantage in server-free backups. Server-free backups usually crave some change in your primary deejay set; it absolutely needs to be on a SAN. Depending on the advancement bell-ringer you choose, you afresh charge to do one of three things. You can:

Option 1 requires an action accumulator array. Options 1 and 2 crave added disks, if you aren’t already apparatus breach mirrors for backup. Advantage 3 requires added software. However, some advancement articles accommodate the software to do this aback you acquirement the server-free advancement add-on to their product. This software, of course, additionally comes at a price. The abstracts mover can additionally abide as intelligence on the deejay array, a Fibre Channel router, or accession committed apparatus on the SAN.

The added disadvantage to server-free backups is that the action is rather complex. It requires abundant added architecture on the allotment of the advancement software company, aback it needs to do the file-to-block mapping. Aback article goes wrong, there are added pieces of software to troubleshoot.

Which advancement advantage is adapted for your environment? The acknowledgment may be credible if you ask yourself a few questions:

The easiest way to breach this botheration is to about-face the afflicted advancement audience into accessory servers and attach them to one or added band libraries. The adversity comes aback chief which band libraries to affix them to. Accept that you’ve alone got one applicant with this problem. You don’t necessarily appetite to buy a abstracted band library aloof for one client. You can physically affix some of your aboriginal library’s band drives to the afflicted applicant and use library administration to allotment the library amid this advancement applicant (which is now a accessory server) and the capital advancement server. Unfortunately, you apparently sized that band library based on how abounding drives you bare for the capital server, and you are now demography abroad some of its resources. Aback you are in this situation, you will about consistently account from LAN-free backups by aing the capital server and accessory server(s) to a SAN and apparatus drive administration to dynamically admeasure drives to the servers that charge them.

This book assumes you already encountered this situation, and accept already physically allocated assertive band drives to assertive servers. Depending on the cardinal of servers and band drives involved, you’d apparently account from a LAN-free advancement configuration.

If you’ve answered yes to the questions so far, you are a applicant for either client-free or server-free backups. The accommodation amid the two is a bit added complex. Basically, you should get quotes for both systems, appraise the bulk of anniversary in your environment, and afresh analyze that bulk to the allowances in Table 4-3.

 

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LAN-free

Client-free

Server-free

Backup applicant CPU, memory, and I/O bulk of TCP/IP processing to alteration abstracts beyond LAN

Significantly bargain (must still accelerate metadata to advancement server)

Significantly bargain (must still accelerate metadata to advancement server)

Significantly bargain (must still accelerate metadata to advancement server)

Backup server CPU, memory, and I/O bulk of TCP/IP processing to alteration abstracts beyond LAN

Significantly bargain (must still accept metadata from advancement client)

Significantly bargain (must still accept metadata from advancement client)

Significantly bargain (must still accept metadata from advancement client)

Backup applicant CPU, memory, and I/O bulk of affective the abstracts from deejay to tape

Same as LAN-based, aback applicant is now amenable for affective breach mirror or snapshot’s abstracts from deejay to tape

No I/O load

No I/O load

Backup server CPU, memory, and I/O bulk of affective the abstracts from deejay to tape

Significantly bargain (must still handle I/O of basis operations)

Same as LAN-based, because server is now amenable for affective breach mirror or snapshot’s abstracts from deejay to tape

Significantly bargain (must still handle I/O of basis operations)

Must applicant be on SAN?

Yes (for drive sharing)

Yes

Yes

Must client’s primary deejay be on a SAN?

No

Yes

Yes and SAN charge abutment continued copy

File-level recoveries

Yes

Yes

 

Probably not

 

 

Snapshot

Backup mirror

Snapshot

Backup mirror

Additional disk

None

Cache deejay only

Equivalent to accessible deejay on primary storage

Cache deejay only

Equivalent to accessible deejay on primary storage

Additional software

Dynamic drive allocation

Snapshot control, advancement control

Backup mirror control, advancement control

Snapshot control, advancement ascendancy with xcopy support

Backup mirror control, advancement ascendancy with xcopy support

Additional server

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Allows acquaintance solutions

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

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Author W. Curtis Preston has specialized in designing advancement and accretion systems for over eight years, and has advised such systems for abounding environments, both ample and small. The aboriginal ambiance that Curtis was amenable for went from 7 baby servers to 250 ample servers in aloof over two years, alive Oracle, Informix, and Sybase databases and bristles versions of Unix. He started managing this ambiance with acquaintance utilities and eventually installed the aboriginal of abounding bartering advancement utilities. His affection for advancement and accretion began with managing the abstracts advance of this 24×7, mission-critical environment. Accepting advised advancement systems for environments with baby budgets, Curtis has developed a cardinal of advisedly attainable tools, including ones that achieve alive backups of Oracle, Informix, and Sybase. He has ported these accoutrement to a cardinal of environments, including Linux, and they are alive at companies about the world. Curtis is now the buyer of Accumulator Designs, a consulting aggregation committed absolutely to selecting, designing, implementing, and auditing accumulator systems. He is additionally the webmaster of www.backupcentral.com.

Footnotes:

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